考研英语高中语法(三)

二:形容词与副词的比较级与最高级

 

1) 形容词和副词比较级的形式是否和比较连词对应出现,即是否符合原级比较及比较级的结构。如:

Do you enjoy listening to records? I find records are often ______or better than an actual performance.

[A] as good as   [B] as good   [C] good    [D]  good as                  (答案为 A)

On the whole, ambitious students are more likely to succeed in their studies than are those with little ambition.

2) 比较的成分是否属于同类事物或同类概念,即:比较要具有可比性。如:

The number of registered participants in this year's marathon was half________

[A] of last year’s              [B] those of last year’s 

[C] of those of last year           [D] that of last year’s           (答案为 D)

Young readers, more often than not, find the novels of dickens far more exciting than Thackeray's

3) 比较级与倍数词的关系及其位置

原级结构中可插入表达倍数的词,表示为“为...若干倍”,当与有表示倍数比较的词在一起的时候,他们的位置是:倍数词+as…as…或倍数词+more…than…, again 一般放在原级词之后,即 "as+原级+ again+as"。如:

Smoking is so harmful to personal health that it kills____ people each year than automobile accidents.

[A] seven more times  [B] seven times more   [C] over seven times    [D] seven times  B

Do you regret paying five hundred dollars for the painting”? "No, I would gladly have paid for it_____."

[A] twice so much [B] twice as much [C] as much twice [D] so much twice               B

My uncle is as old again as I am.

4) 下列词和短语不用比较级形式却表示比较概念:

inferior, minor, senior, prior, prefer to, superior, major, junior, preferable, differ from, compared with, in comparison with, different from, rather than , 如:

Their watch is ____ to all the other watches on the market.

[A] superior [B] advantageous [C] super [D] beneficial      A

Prior to his departure, he addressed a letter to his daughter. (1986 年考研题)

5) “比较级+and +比较级”或“more and as more/less and less +原级”以及“ever, steadily, daily 等副词+比较级”结构表示“越来越……”的意思,与这类结构搭配的常用动词有grow, get ,become 等。前面两种情况更多地出现在进行时态中,注意的是这三种情况引导的比较级后面都不需要用than,如:

Things are getting worse and worse.

As I spoke to him he became less and less angry.

Her health was becoming daily worse

The road got ever worse until there was no road at all = the road got worse and worse.

6) 比较级前面可以用 even, still, yet ,all the (more)等修饰语用以加强语气,表示“更加”的意思。如:

Today it is even colder than yesterday.

I have yet more exciting news for you.

7) 有关比较级的特殊句型:

A) not so much…as…与其说……不如如

The chief reason for the population growth isn't so much a rise in birth rates ____ a fall in death rates as a result of improvements in medical care.

[A] and   [B] as    [C]but    [D] or                            (答案为 B)

B) no/not any more…than…两者一样都不

The heart is ______ intelligent than the stomach, for they are both controlled by the brain.

[A] not so [B]not much [C]much more [D] no more                    (答案为 D)

There is no reason they should limit how much vitamin you take, _____ they can limit how much water you drink.

[A] much more than [B] no more than [C] no less than [D] any more than   (答案为 D)

C) no/not any less…than…两者一样,都……注意基本上与 no/not any more… than 意思相反

She is no less beautiful than her sister.

D) just as… so… 正如…… …………(用倒装结构)

Just as the soil is a part of the earth, ____the atmosphere______.

[A] as it is [B] the same is [C] so is [D] and so is (答案为 C)

 

注意:

 

(1) no more(...)thannot more(...)than 的用法

a) 不用于比较,后接数词时,no more than意为仅仅,只不过,只有=only),而not more than意为至多,不超过=at the most). 如:

There are no more than fifteen eggs in the basket.  (暗指15个鸡蛋太少)
There are not more than fifteen eggs in the basket.
  (暗指可能少于15个)

b) 用语两者的比较时:no+形容词或副词比较级+than是对两者的否定,相当于neither...nor... 如:
This story is no more interesting than that one.(=Neither this story nor that one is interesting.)
not+形容词或副词比较级+than"是普通的比较级结构,表示前者不如后者,相当于not so...as... 如:
This story is not more interesting than that one.(=This story is not so interesting as that one.)

(2) rather than more…than…

a) rather than 用来表示...而不是...,通常连接两个并列成分   如:

He is an artist rather than a philosopher.
  b) sb/sth is more A than B表示与其说sb/sthB,不如说是A”如:
He is more an artist than a philosopher.
注意:这里所讲的not more...than 所作比较的是than前和than后的词语,要注意区分。

 

 

二:最高级形式应注意的问题:

 

1)     最高级比较范围用介词 in, over, of, among.

in, (all) over 用于在某一范围内的比较,如:in China, all over the world

of, among 用于在同一群体内同类事物的比较,如:among the teachers, of the four dresses

注意:among相当于one of …,不说 among all….这一点应与汉语表达区别开来。如:

_____ all visible lights, red light has the longest and violet the shortest wavelength.

[A] Among    [B] Of        [C]For        [D]To        答案为[B]

2) 比较级形式表示最高级意义时,比较对象的范围应用:

any other +单数名词

the other +复数名词

the others

anyone / anything else

上述词是英语将比较级结构转变成最高级意义的关键词语,切不可遗漏,尤其是other,否则会造成逻辑混乱的错误。如不能说:

John runs faster than anyone.

3) most 可以用来修饰形容词或副词,意思相当于very 用法区分单复数,但不能用定冠词the,如:a most interesting bookmost expensive restaurants,要注意与 the +形容词最高级+of + 名词”的结构表示的最高级的区别, 如:

He spoke in the warmest of voices.

They have been most kind to me.

Basketball is the most popular of sports in this country.

Chinese is the most difficult of language.

Chinese is a most difficult language.