艺术生英语语法(四)

三:不用比较级和最高级的形容词:

 

1) 表示颜色的有:white, black

2) 表示形态的有:round, square, oval, circular, triangular(三角形), level

3) 表示性质和特征的有:atomic, economic, scientific, sonic, golden, silvery, woolen, earthen, silent, full, empty, sure, dead, deaf, blind, lame, rainy

4) 表示状态作表语的有:afraid, asleep, alive, ashamed, alone, aware, alike

5) 表示时间,空间和方位的有:daily, weekly, monthly, annual, present, front, back, forward, backward, east, west, south, north, left, right, final

6) 表示极限,主次,等级的有: maximum, minimum, utmost, main, major, chief minor, superior, inferior, senior, junior, super, favorite

7) 含有绝对概念的有:absolute, entire, whole, total, perfect, excellent, thorough, complete.

 

四:平行结构与比较级

 

平行结构很多情况下是由形容词或副词的比较级或者暗含比较意味的连词引导的。如:

The ideal listener stays both inside and outside the music at the moment it is played and enjoys it almost as much as the composer at the moment he composes.

大多数情况下平行结构都是具有一定的比较含义的,有的是递进对比 not only…but (also) prefer…to…rather than,有的是同类对比:andbutorboth… and…either…or…neither…nor…..

平行结构测试时候注意以下几点:

1) 注意比较结构中相比较的内容在语法形式上是否相同。如:

It is better to die one's feet than_____.

[A] living on one's knees         [B]live on one's knees  

[C]on one's knees               [D]to live on one's knees      (答案为 D)

Despite the temporary difficulties, the manager prefers increasing the output to decreasing it.

2) 其他具有并列或比较意义的短语也可引导平行结构。

1) rather thanlet alone 虽不是并列连词,但在结构上连接两个语法形式相同的成分。如:

We are taught that a business letter should be written in a formal style ______ in a personal style.

[A] rather than   [B] other than  [C] better than   [D] less than         (答案为 A)

For the new country to survive, for its people to enjoy prosperity, new economic policies will be required.

[A] to name a few   [B] let alone   [C] not to speak      [D]  let's say   (答案为 B)

3) 如果平行的两个成分在形式上是介词短语,而且介词相同,一般说来第二个介词不要省略。 如:

At times, more care goes into the composition of newspaper and magazine advertisements than into the writing of the features and editorials.

 

()代词及其指代一致

 

一:代词的指代

 

1) that 的指代作用

that 指代不可数名词和单数可数名词 (如是复数, those),后面通常跟有修饰语,如出现在比较结构中的that of 如:

Conversation calls for a willingness to alternate the role of speaker with that of listener, and it calls for occasional "digestive pauses" by both. 这里 that 指代前面的the role.

No bread eaten by men is so sweet as that earned by his own labor.

2) one 的指代作用

one 指代带不定冠词的单数可数名词,复数为 onesthe one 指代带定冠词的单数可数名词。如:

A good writer is ____ who can express the commonplace in an uncommon way.

[A] that    [B]he        [C]one      [D]this        答案为[C]

3) do 的替代作用

do 代替动词,注意数和时态的变化。如:

For him to be re-elected, what is essential is not that his policy works, but that the public believe that it does.