零基础的英语语法(六)

and 连接的成份表示一个单一概念的时候,动词谓语用单数形式。Bread and butter is our daily food.Time and tide waits for no man.

 

二: 谓语用复数情况

 

1) andboth …and,连接的并列主语,和 botha fewmanyseveral 等修饰语后面谓语动词通常用复数形式。

Few people know he and I were classmates when we were at college.

2) 集体名词 policepublicmilitiacattleclassyouth 后常用复数形式的动词。

The Chinese people are brave and hardworking.

The cattle are grazing in the sunshine.

3) 当表示民族的词与冠词合用当主语,谓语动词用复数形式。

The Japanese were once very aggressive

4) 某些形容词前面加定冠词表示一类人,做主语的时候,谓语动词用复数。

The rich are not always selfish

5) 不可数名词作主语,其前有表示数量的复数名词修饰时,谓语动词用复数。

Three million tons of coal were exported that year.

 

三:谓语动词可用单数,也可以用复数的情况

 

1) 就近一致原则

这种情况下,谓语动词使用单数还是复数取决于最靠近该动词的主语的单复数,存在这种情况的主要由以下几种可能:

a)     由连词 either…or… neither…nor…whether… or…not only…but (also)or等连接的并列主语。

Neither money nor fame has influence on me.

Not only you but also he is wrong.

b) 在倒装结构中,谓语动词与后面的第一个主语一致。

Blocking the open-sided porch, framed by the enveloping fog, stands a tall grave-faced policeman.

Just outside the ruins is a magnificent building surrounded by tall trees.

The cattle are grazing in the sunshine Although a great number of houses in that area are still in need of repair, there has been improvement in the facility.

2) 主语带有(together/along) with,such as accompanied byas well as no less than exceptbesideswith combined with in addition toincluding, together with 等等附加成分,谓语的数不受附加成分的影响仍然与主语保持一致。

Professor Taylor, with six of his students, is attending a conference in Boston organized to compare current practice in the United States with those of other nations.

The president of the college, together with the deans, is planning a conference for the purpose of laying down certain regulations. (1981 年考研题)

3) 关系代词做主语的定语从句中,谓语的数要与先行词一致。如:

Despite much research, there are still certain elements in the life cycle of the insect that are not fully understood. (1996 年考研题)

There are many valuable services which the public are willing to pay for, but which do not bring a return in money to the community.

4) 一些表示数量的短语与名词连用时候,谓语动词的数取决于名词的数,名词是复数,谓语动词用复数,反之就用单数。这些短语包括:a lot of /lots ofplenty of/heaps ofhalf oftwo-third (three-fourth…) ofeighty (ten, twenty…) percentpart ofrest ofnone of 等等

Two-thirds of people present are women.

Lots of damage was caused by the fire.

5) 集体名词作主语时,谓语动词的数取决于主语表示的意思和数,当表示整体时候,谓语用单数,当强调集体中的个体时候,谓语动词就用复数。这些集体名词如:

Armyaudiencebandgovernmentgroupflockpolicepublicstaffteamtroop crowdfirmfamily等等。

The family is the basic unit of our society.

The family were watching the TV

The audience was enormous.

The audience were greatly moved at the words.

6) 某些固定结构中主语与谓语的数:

第一组:

a great many + 可数名词复数, 谓语用复数

a number of + 可数名词复数, 谓语用复数

the majority of +可数名词复数,谓语用复数

第二组:

the number of+ 可数名词复数,谓语用单数

each/every + 可数名词复数,谓语用单数

neither/either of + 可数名词复数,谓语用单数

one and a half + 可数名词复数,谓语用单数

第三组:

more than one + 可数名词单数,谓语用单数

many a + 可数名词单数,谓语用单数

第四组:

the greater part of

a large proportion of

50% of; one third of

plenty of

the rest of

谓语的数与of后面的名词一致。

第五组:

(n)either…(n)or….

not only….. but also ……

not …..but ……

谓语的数与主语的第二部分((n)or/ but also/ but 引导的后面部分)一致。

注意比较:

More students than one have been referred to

More than one student is going to buy this book

 

rif"� P-i�,����amily:宋体;color:black;background:white'>than后的词语,要注意区分。

 

 

二:最高级形式应注意的问题:

 

1)     最高级比较范围用介词 in, over, of, among.

in, (all) over 用于在某一范围内的比较,如:in China, all over the world

of, among 用于在同一群体内同类事物的比较,如:among the teachers, of the four dresses

注意:among相当于one of …,不说 among all….这一点应与汉语表达区别开来。如:

_____ all visible lights, red light has the longest and violet the shortest wavelength.

[A] Among    [B] Of        [C]For        [D]To        答案为[B]

2) 比较级形式表示最高级意义时,比较对象的范围应用:

any other +单数名词

the other +复数名词

the others

anyone / anything else

上述词是英语将比较级结构转变成最高级意义的关键词语,切不可遗漏,尤其是other,否则会造成逻辑混乱的错误。如不能说:

John runs faster than anyone.

3) most 可以用来修饰形容词或副词,意思相当于very 用法区分单复数,但不能用定冠词the,如:a most interesting bookmost expensive restaurants,要注意与 the +形容词最高级+of + 名词”的结构表示的最高级的区别, 如:

He spoke in the warmest of voices.

They have been most kind to me.

Basketball is the most popular of sports in this country.

Chinese is the most difficult of language.

Chinese is a most difficult language.