考研英语初级语法(七)

()倒装结构

 

倒装是指句子成分不是按主语在前,谓语在后的正常语序排列,而是将谓语或谓语的一部分移到主语之前。倒装是一种修辞手段,目的是为了强调。倒装分为部分倒装和全部倒装,考试多为部分倒装。我们应掌握什么情况下需要倒装,并对倒装后的句子能够认出来,避免做题时候的盲目和迷茫。

 

一:用全部倒装的情况

 

全部倒装一般是存在以下列副词开头的句子中,全部倒装的方法是把句子的主谓语序颠倒过来,把谓语移到主语前面:

1) 出于修辞需要,表示方向的副词:outdowninupawayon。如:

Down jumped the burglar from the tenth floor when he heard someone shouted at him.

    Up went the plane

2) 出于习惯用法:heretherenowthushence then。如:

    Now is your turn.

There goes the bell.

Here is a ticket for you

    There existed a certain doubt among the students as to the necessity of work

注意:herethere 用于倒装结构时,主语一般为名词,如果是人称代词则不需要倒装。

“Where is the cup?" "Here it is!”

Here you are.

There he comes.

3) 有时主语较长,为了使句子平衡,避免头重脚轻,主谓要全部倒装。这种情况多出现在主系表结构中。如:

Less important than ever is developing a meaningful philosophy of life.

In between these two extremes are those people who agree with the jury system as a whole, but feel that some changes need to be implemented to improve its effectiveness.

 

. 采用部分倒装情况

 

部分倒装一般是把句子谓语的一部分(主要是助动词或系动词)放到句子主语前,构成部分倒装,而全部倒装则把句子的谓语(包括实义动词)都放在主语前

 

1) 下列否定词及含有否定意义的词组修饰状语时,若置于句首,句子的主谓要部分倒装。

Never noneithernot onlyhardlyscarcelylittleseldomrarelynot untilnowhere at no timeon no accountin no respectin no senseby no meansin vainstill less,如:

Not only is its direct attack on their discipline, it bypasses the essence of what sociologists focus on.

Under no circumstances should we do anything that will benefit ourselves but harm the interests of the state. (1985 年考研题)

注:a) 如果谓语动词是单个实义动词,倒装时需根据人称和时态加助动词do 如:

Little did we expect that he would fulfill his task so rapidly. (1983 年考研题)

b) 要广义理解“句首”的概念,注意从句的句首和并列分句的句首均为句首。如:

Suddenly, Gallup's name was on everyone's lips; not only was he the prophet of the moment, but it was generally believed that he had founded a new and most important method of prediction.

2) only 修饰状语(副词,介词短语,状语从句)开头的句子,句子的主谓要部分倒装:

  only thenonly at that timeonly onceonly in this wayonly withonly throughonly byonly whenonly afteronly because。如:

Only when you have obtained sufficient data, ________come to a sound conclusion.

[A]can you   [B]would you   [C]you will   [D]you can

3) 以下列副词或短语开头的句子,句子的主谓要部分倒装:

Oftensowellto such a degreeto such an extentto such extremesto such a pointmany a time。如:

So involved ______with their computers that leaders at summer computer camps often have to force them to break for sports and games.

[A]became the children          [B]become the children        

[C]had the children become       [D]do the children become   (2001年考研题,答案为D)

4) 比较从句的倒装:

Asthan 引导的比较从句中,如果主语是名词短语且较长,经常采用倒装结构(不倒装也可以)。注意:这种结构主语一般为名词,如果是代词则不倒装。如:

Hydrogen burns much more cleanly than do other fuels and is easy to produce.

Today's electric cars cannot go as fast as gasoline-driven vehicles because the battery does not offer the same amount of energy as does gasoline combustion.

Reading is to the mind as is exercise to the body.

5) 用于前面所说的情况也适用于另一人()的肯定句或否定句中的倒装

a) 肯定重复倒装用:so

They have got up, and so has Jack.

b) 否定重复倒装用:nor, neither, no more

If you don't agree to our plan, neither will they.

6) not only…but also"结构时,如果 not only 放在句首,则前半句倒装, but (also)句子后面不倒装

Not only did we lose all our money, but we also came close to being broke.

 

三:特殊的倒装结构

 

特殊形式的倒装结构是指句子虽然是倒装结构,但不是主谓倒装,而往往是出于强调的需要,把强调部分移到句首,而其他部分顺序不需要改变,句子的主谓不需要倒装。出现这样的情况有以下几种可能:

1)     让步从句的倒装

as引导的让步状语从句,必须采用倒装结构,但不是主谓倒装,而是将被强调的内容置于句首。如:

Much as I have traveled, I have never seen anyone to equal her, in thoroughness, whatever the job.

Brave as they are, they are afraid of fight.

 

2)     出现在句型be +主语+其他中。如:

While it’s true that we all need a career, preferably a profitable one, it is equally true that our civilization has accumulated an incredible amount of knowledgebe it scientific or artistic.

3)     no matter how(who…)however 引导的让步状语从句必须采用倒装结构,但不是主谓倒装,而是将被强调的内容至于句首。如:

No matter how busy he is, he has to attend the meeting.

However cold it is, he always goes swimming.