考研英语初级语法(九)

三:虚拟语气的运用

 

1)     虚拟语气在状语从句中的运用

 

虚拟语气在状语从句中的运用除了可以表示条件外,还可以表示比较、结果、目的等。虚拟语气用于表示条件的状语从句中,一般称为虚拟条件句。根据时间的不同,虚拟条件句中谓语动词时态的变化可能有三种形式,即现在、过去和将来。

If it did, it would open up its diversity program, now focused narrowly on race and gender, and look for reporters who differ broadly by outlook, values, education, and class.2001 TEXT1

这是一个含有条件状语从句的复合句。If it did是条件状语从句。主句中主语是it;谓语动词有两个,分别是would open up...look for...。这是一个与现在事实相反的虚拟语气,从句用一般过去时,主句用would+动词原形open uplook for

2) 虚拟语气在名词性从句中的运用

虚拟语气除了用作状语从句中外,还可以用作主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句、同位语从句等名词性从中。

a) 虚拟语气在主语从句中的运用

it作形式主语,后面用形容词作表语,即在it is + adj.这样的句型中,当描述主语的表语形容词是advisablecriticalcrucialdesirableessentialimperativeimportantincredibleinevitablenecessaryrecommendstrangeurgent等形容词时,主语从句的谓语动词多用虚拟语气,如果是现在时,谓语动词用should/would +动词原形(should/would经常省略);如果是过去时,则用should/would + have done的形式。

It was inevitable that this primacy should have narrowed as other countries grew richer. Just as inevitablythe retreat from predominance proved painful.

这是一个含有主语从句的复合句。句首的It是形式主语,真正主语是that从句,该主语从句使用了虚拟语气should+完成时。(2000 TEXT1

b) 虚拟语气在宾语从句中的运用

表示“建议、请求、命令、要求”等主观意向的词(如:suggestadviseassumedecidedemanddesireinsistproposeorderrecommendrequiresuggest),引导宾语从句时需用虚拟语气。虚拟语气中的格式很固定:谓语动词用should+动词原形,should可以省略。注意这种句型中的虚拟语气形式不受主句动词时态的影响。

Theories concerning on the individual suggest that children engage in criminal behavior because they were not sufficiently penalized for previous misdeeds or that they have learned criminal behavior through interactions with others.2004 CLOSE

此句是个含有一个宾语从句、两个原因状语从句的复合句。suggest是主句谓语,Suggest后面的宾语从句中的谓语动词engage in前面省略了should.

c) 虚拟语气在同位语从句中的运用

名词adviceassumptiondecisiondemanddesireinsistenceorderproposalrequirementrecommendationsuggestion…后面若有同位语从句,从句的谓语动词也应使用虚拟语气的形式。

Such behavior is regarded as “all too human”, with the underlying assumption that other animals would not be capable of this finely developed sense of grievance. 2005 TEXT1

这是个含有同位语从句的复合句。that引导的同位语从句的谓语动词由would+动词原形be构成。

d) 虚拟语气在表语从句中的运用

与同位语从句一样,若主语是某些特定动词的同根名词(参考上一部分同位语从句),要在它后面的表语从句要用虚拟式。

Another decision is whether the school should be one of the vast majority financed by the State or one of the very small but influential minority of private schoolsthough this choice isof courseonly available to the small number of those who can pay.

这是个含有表语从句的复合句。主语是another decision;谓语是iswhether……or……是表语从句,其中谓语动词由should+动词原形be构成。参考译文:另一个要做出的决定是:应该选择一所占绝大多数的国立学校呢,还是选择一所数量虽小却有影响力的私立学校呢,当然,只有少数有支付能力的人才有这种选择的权利。