考研英语初级语法(十一)

() 语法难点精析之二:非谓语动词

 

一:不定式和动名词作主语的区别

 

1) 动名词作主语通常表示抽象动作;而不定式作主语表示具体动作。

 Smoking is prohibited(禁止)here.
It is not very good for you to smoke so much.

2) 动名词作主语时,通常用以表示一件已知的事或经验。不定式短语通常用来表示一件未完成的事或目的。

Climbing mountains is interesting.
Driving a car during the rush hour is tiring.

二:不定式、动名词和分词作表语的区别

 

1) 不定式作表语一般表示具体动作,特别是表示将来的动作。例:

His wish is to buy a luxurious car in the near future.

2)动名词作表语:动名词作表语,表示抽象的一般性的行为。例:

Our work is serving the people.

()动名词作表语时与进行时态中的现在分词形式相同,但其所属结构迥异,进行时态说明动作是由主语完成的。动名词做表语,说明主语的性质或情况。

3)分词作表语。

表示心理状态的动词如excite, interest等都是及物动词,汉语注解不是“激动”、“高兴”,而是“使得激动”、“使高兴”,因而现在分词应该是“令人激动的”、“令人高兴的”,过去分词则是“感到激动的”和“感到高兴的”。所以,凡表示“令人……的”都是ing形式,凡是表示“感到……”都用ed形式。换句话说,若人对……感兴趣,就是somebody is interested in…,若人/物本身有趣时,就是sb./sth. is interesting。例如:

interesting使人感到高兴——interested感到高兴的

exciting令人激动的——excited感到激动的

delighting令人高兴的——delighted感到高兴的

disappointing令人失望的——disappointed感到失望的

Traveling is interesting but tiring.
The pupils will get confused if they are made to learn too much.

三:不定式和动名词作宾语的区别

 

英语中大多数动词既可跟不定式,也可跟动名词作直接宾语,但有些动词要求:

1) 不定式做宾语和宾语补足语。例如:

They are training these dogs to sniff out drugs.
The radio urged people to contribute to the Red Cross.

2) 有少数动词只能用动名词作宾语。例如:

I appreciate having been given the opportunity to study abroad two years ago.

3) 动名词作介词的宾语。

几乎所有介词,不管是单个介词还是介词词组,不管它们是谓语动词的组成部分与否,都可用动名词作其宾语。主要有以下搭配关系:

a) 动词+介词+动名词,例:

Scientists measure the hardness of a material by comparing with a table of ten well known metals.

b) 名词(形容词,不及物动词)+介词to (不要把它视为动词不定式的标志)

下面是大纲中所列短语中的“to”为介词:(be) contrary to 与……相反, object (objection) to 反对,with a view to 为……起见,(be) opposed to 反对,in contrast to 与……成对比,be used to 习惯于,be exposed to, be dedicated to 致力于,resort to 诉诸于,as to 关于 be accustomed to习惯于,be devoted to献身于,be committed to委身于,react to对……反应,with regard to关于,look forward to期待,contribute to贡献等。如:

Mr. Brown often wore a heavy coat because he was not used to living in such a cold climate.

c) 动词+副词+介词+动名词

I look forward to her coming soon.
d)
形容词(或具有形容词性质的-ed分词)+介词+ing

It is impossible for him finishing the task in such a short time.
e)
表示征求意见的”How about?”, ”What about?”,例:

How about going there?
去那里怎么样?

4) 有些动词后使用动名词和动词不定式作宾语的差别。如:

forget to do
忘记要去做某事(此事未做)

forget doing
忘记做过某事(此事已做过或已发生)