考研英语初级语法(十五)

七:非谓语动词常考的其他结构

 

1)疑问词+不定式结构。

疑问词who, what, which, when, where,how后加不定式可构成一种特殊的不定式短语。它在句中可以用作主语、宾语、表语和双重宾语。如:

When to start has not been decided.

2)不带to的不定式。

a) 在表示生理感觉的动词后的不定式不带to。这类词有:feel觉得observe注意到,看到overhear听到watch注视notice注意listen tosee看见hearperceive察觉,感知look at

b) 另一类是某些使役动词,如make, let, have等。如:

I would have you know that I am ill.

注意:一:上述感觉动词与使役动词转换为被动结构时,其后的不定式一般需带to,如:

He was seen to come. 二:在动词findhelp之后,不定式可带to亦可不带to,如:

He was surprised to find the sheepto break fence at this season.
c)
do nothing/anything/everything but except)结构中。例如:

Last night I did nothing but watch TV.

但是,如果谓语动词不是“do nothing, anything, everything”,那么but except)所跟的不定式则仍须带“to”。例如:

The doctor told him nothing but to stop smoking.

3)不定式与动名词的逻辑主语和分词独立结构

a) 不定式的逻辑主语为:for+名词(或代词宾格)+不定式。例如:

I found it impossible for him to do the job alone.
b)
动名词的逻辑主语为:人称代词的所有格+动名词;名词’s +动名词

Tom insisted on my going with them.
c)
某些形容词,如:careless, clever, considerate, foolish, good, impolite, kind, nice, silly, stupid等不定式后可以加of来引导出其逻辑主语。

It is very kind of you to help me.